Brain networks for integrative rhythm formation reports a functional magnetic resonance imaging study on rhythmic movements paced by auditory cues.
 Abstract from paper
Performance of externally paced rhythmic movements requires brain and behavioral integration of sensory stimuli with motor commands. The underlying brain mechanisms to elaborate beat-synchronized rhythm and polyrhythms that musicians readily perform may differ. Given known roles in perceiving time and repetitive movements, we hypothesized that basal ganglia and cerebellar structures would have greater activation for polyrhythms than for on-the-beat rhythms.
 Methodology/Principal Findings
Using functional MRI methods, we investigated brain networks for performing rhythmic movements paced by auditory cues. Musically trained participants performed rhythmic movements at 2 and 3 Hz either at a 1:1 on-the-beat or with a 3:2 or a 2:3 stimulus-movement structure. Due to their prior musical experience, participants performed the 3:2 or 2:3 rhythmic movements automatically. Both the isorhythmic 1:1 and the polyrhythmic 3:2 or 2:3 movements yielded the expected activation in contralateral primary motor cortex and related motor areas and ipsilateral cerebellum. Direct comparison of functional MRI signals obtained during 3:2 or 2:3 and on-the-beat rhythms indicated activation differences bilaterally in the supplementary motor area, ipsilaterally in the supramarginal gyrus and caudate-putamen and contralaterally in the cerebellum.
The activated brain areas suggest the existence of an interconnected brain network specific for complex sensory-motor rhythmic integration that might have specificity for elaboration of musical abilities.
The brain scans were analyzed with SPM99b and a template in MNI space was used.
The result images was thresholded on P<0.05 cluster corrected with a P<0.001 voxel uncorrected.
 Frequency of movement
Table 2 with 4 coordinates
 Polyrhythmic versus isorhythmic pacing
 Isorhythmic versus polyrhythmic pacing
Table 3, part 2 with 2 coordinates