Neural correlates of hate

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Paper (help)
Neural correlates of hate
Authors: Semir Zeki, John Paul Romaya
Citation: PLOS ONE 3 (10): e3556. 2008
Database(s): PubMed (PMID/18958169)
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003556.
Link(s): http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0003556&representation=PDF
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Neural correlates of hate reports a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with 17 normal subjects viewing faces of persons that they hated and of "acquaintances for whom they had neutral feelings".

Contents

[edit] Abstract from paper

Abstract from the paper by Zeki and Romaya distributed under CC-BY:

"In this work, we address an important but unexplored topic, namely the neural correlates of hate. In a block-design fMRI study, we scanned 17 normal human subjects while they viewed the face of a person they hated and also faces of acquaintances for whom they had neutral feelings. A hate score was obtained for the object of hate for each subject and this was used as a covariate in a between-subject random effects analysis. Viewing a hated face resulted in increased activity in the medial frontal gyrus, right putamen, bilaterally in premotor cortex, in the frontal pole and bilaterally in the medial insula. We also found three areas where activation correlated linearly with the declared level of hatred, the right insula, right premotor cortex and the right fronto-medial gyrus. One area of deactivation was found in the right superior frontal gyrus. The study thus shows that there is a unique pattern of activity in the brain in the context of hate. Though distinct from the pattern of activity that correlates with romantic love, this pattern nevertheless shares two areas with the latter, namely the putamen and the insula."

[edit] Subjects

Subject group #1 (help)
Healthy
Subjects/♂/♀: 17 / 10 / 7
Age: 34.8 (–)
Handedness: 10 right-handed
Nationality: British
Approval: Research Ethics Committee for the National Hospital for Neurology and neurosurgery and the Institute of Neurology
Databases:

Group 1 of 17 10 right-handed-handed healthy with 10 males and 7 females were included in the study. The British group had a mean age of 34.8. The study on the human subjects was approved by the Research Ethics Committee for the National Hospital for Neurology and neurosurgery and the Institute of Neurology. "Only subjects expressing a strong hatred for an individual were selected."

[edit] Scanning

MRI Scanning (help)
Mode: fMRI
Scanner: Siemens Magneton Sonata 1.5T
Type: Echo-planar imaging

(TR=3420ms, TE=50ms, FA=?)

Slices: 38 (thickness=2mm , gap=1mm) oriented Axial aquired descending
Size: resolution=3x3x3mm
Laboratory: missing laboratory

For fMRI Echo-planar imaging scans were acquired with a 1.5T Siemens Magneton Sonata.

MRI Scanning (help)
Mode: aMRI
Scanner: Siemens Magneton Sonata 1.5T
Type: T1-weighted mdelf

(TR=12240ms, TE=3560ms, FA=?)

Slices: 176 oriented saggital
Size: resolution=1x1x1mm
Laboratory: missing laboratory

For aMRI T1-weighted mdelf scans were acquired with a 1.5T Siemens Magneton Sonata.


[edit] Conditions

Psychoexperimental condition #1 (help)
Name: Viewing hated faces
Stimulus: Viewing an face image of a hated person (Visual stimulus)
Instruction: Press a key when each time a face disappear
Behavioral response: Button press (Hand response)
Cogn. comp.: Hate
In condition no. 1, Viewing hated faces, the subjects were presented with a Visual stimulus. They were instructed to Press a key when each time a face disappear. The subjects responded with Button press.
Psychoexperimental condition #2 (help)
Name: Viewing neutral faces
Stimulus: Viewing of face images of person of emotional neutral relationship (Visual stimulus)
Instruction: Press a key when each time a face disappear
Behavioral response: Button press (Hand response)
In condition no. 2, Viewing neutral faces, the subjects were presented with a Visual stimulus. They were instructed to Press a key when each time a face disappear. The subjects responded with Button press.

The expression of the faces were the same between the hated face and the neutral.

[edit] Results

P-values are reported "at significance p≤0.05 which have been corrected family-wise for multiple comparisons using Gaussian random field theory" and "quoted in millimetres in MNI space" (result section).

[edit] All faces > Baseline

Tree coordinates mentioned in the text and display in Figure 2 [1]

Anatomy
BA
x
y
z
No. vox
t
z
Coordinate search
Plot
1 Fusiform face area 39 -48 -18 8.66 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available
2 Fusiform gyrus 42 -81 -15 12.35 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available
3 Fusiform gyrus -42 -81 -12 9.49 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available

[edit] Hated face > Neutral face

Figures 3 and 4 and text

Anatomy
BA
x
y
z
No. vox
t
z
Coordinate search
Plot
1 Medial frontal gyrus 6 9 60 269 8.41 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available
2 Right putamen 24 0 12 45 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available
3 Right premotor cortex 45 3 39 26 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available
4 left premotor cortex -39 3 45 57 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available
5 Frontal pole -15 57 27 62 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available
6 Right medial insula 51 12 -6 65 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available
7 Left medial insula -48 9 0 37 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available

[edit] Neutral faces > Hated Faces

Figure 6

Anatomy
BA
x
y
z
No. vox
t
z
Coordinate search
Plot
1 Right superior frontal gyrus 33 18 57 33 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available

[edit] Covarying with hate questionnarie score

Figure 5 [2] with 3 coordinates. The P-value here are for a search volume of 5,225 voxels .

Anatomy
BA
x
y
z
No. vox
t
z
Coordinate search
Plot
1 Right insula 51 9 -6 6.37 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available
2 Right premotor cortex 39 -6 60 6.32 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available
3 Right fronto-medial gyrus 6 15 45 5.84 Brede Database Brede Wiki NeuroSynth SumsDB Not available

[edit] Related papers

  1. Depression uncouples brain hate circuit

[edit] Critique

  1. Scatter plots show voodoo correlations

[edit] External links

  1. Activation of the Hate Circuit While Reading 'Depression Uncouples Brain Hate Circuit' , The Neurocritic
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